Few days ago, we got a message in our facebook page from a freshman year BSc CSIT student saying "what is this git thing ? is it useful to us ?....." and we thought of doing an article on this.

Suppose you're doing a project and you're almost about to finish it. And then your laptop gets stolen or it gets broken and you can't recover your project code. Now, that's a catastrophe. All your toil and hard labour goes in vain. Literally you're null now, you'll have to start all over again.

Suppose you're doing a project and the client or people keep on asking you about your project's progress. Or you are in a such a project where you have to submit your code to certain authority in each milestone. So, that's a tedious job, doing things over and over in each milestone or certain step.

Suppose you're in a  long-term creative-type of project. After you pass certain step, you come up with new and efficient ideas of code that you could have implemented in the latter step. Then, you're gonna have to rewrite the whole code from the beginning, each time, actually many times. And that's tedious as well.

Suppose you're doing a collaborative project with involvement of lot of people. And it is totally impractical to send the zipped files to each of them each and every time you do something new.

So, we need an efficient solution to such unreliabilities. So, in 2005, the great Linus Torvalds released all the developers from such great pain by creating a tool called git.

Normally, even a novice developer these days knows about git. No matter how much vast texts we try to write about git in this article, it will appear less and less once you start typing "git" in google search.

Git is simply a version control system which helps you keep track of changes in your files or code. It's a common term among programmers these days and it saves a lot of effort and time while you're creating something new since you can reuse others' code and add your creativity over it.

We don't think we should write anything more about git, since the internet has got a lot of web articles waiting for you to read regarding git. So, happy gitting future programmers :) .

Git wikipedia page : https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Git

If you want to learn more git functions, visit this article as well, it's pretty helpful :
The Advanced Git Guide: Git Stash, Reset, Rebase, and More

P.S. : This article is mainly targeted to the newly enrolled computer science students who are curious about software development. The main intention behind writing this piece of text is to aware them about version control in their beginning days, the internet will lead them further. Comments and feedback are appreciated.

here are the old questions for 6th semester 2073 exams. and thanks a lot to Anjana Bhandari for providing us the old questions.

Real Time System

Compiler Design and Construction

Software Engineering

Web Technologies

Fundamentals of  E-Commerce

P.S. please let us know if you have any latest exam question papers and we will update them here in the blog. thanks.

Well, a guy messaged us asking how to access the worldlink router settings and I thought of writing a blog post in it.

Few months back, I had worldlink internet connected at my home and the connection guys told me not to mess with the reset button on the router. And I became a bit curious. Then, they told me that I should login to the worldlink's website to change my wifi ssid and password, and I became more curious. And when I asked about hiding wifi and mac filtering, they said that users are not allowed to open router settings and i should go to the worldlink office and they would do it for me,. And I was like "what the f***  man !, I have the router(which I am paying charges to use) in my room and I need to go to worldlink office to use the settings ? " Screw them !

Simply follow the following steps to access the fiber router settings.
It has a lot of features. You can do a lot of things if you know to use it properly (if you know what i mean ;-) ).

1. Open your browser and type in the default gateway ( for me it's ). You can get your default gateway by typing "ipconfig" command in command prompt.

2. Then enter the following credentials : 
     Account :     telecomadmin
     Password  :  admintelecom

3. Done. 

P.S. This article is for educational purpose only. We won't be held responsible if anyone is caught breaking the law.

Here is the download link of complete real time systems chapter wise notes.


The routine and exam center of BSc CSIT 4th and 6th semester are as follows :

Routine :

Exam Center :

Good luck to everyone !

Group 'B'

4.) What do you mean by knowledge discovery in database (KDD) ?

Ans :- Knowledge discovery in database is the process of finding useful information and patterns in data. It involves the cleaning of unnecessary data in a database to the presentation of the extracted useful information. Data Mining itself is a process within KDD. Some of the steps or stages of KDD are as follows :

a.) Data Cleaning : It is the process of removing noise and unnecessary and unwanted data from a database.

b.) Data Integration : In this stage, data coming from multiple sources are combined.

c.) Data Selection : In this stage, the data that are related or relevant to the knowledge analysis field are selected for further processing.

d.) Data Transformation : In this stage, data is transformed into appropriate form making it ready for data mining step. Summary or aggregation operations are applied onto the selected data.

e.) Data Mining : In this stage, intelligent steps such as algorithms or other techniques are applied to extract data patterns in the available data.

f.) Pattern Evaluation : This step interprets the mined patterns and relationships based on the standard measures. If the pattern evaluated is not useful, then it may start the KDD process from beginning. 

g.) Knowledge Presentation : It is the final stage of KDD. In this stage, the knowledge discovered is presented to the user in a simple and easy to understand format. Mostly visualization techniques are used to interpret and make users understand.

5.) Explain the applications of Data Warehousing and Data Mining .

Ans :- 
Applications of Data Mining :
A.) Data Mining for financial Data Analysis : 
*Loan Payment Prediction and customer analysis
*Classification and clustering of customers for targeted marketing.
*Fraud detection and financial crimes.
*Design and construction of data warehouses for multi-dimensional data analysis and data mining.

B.) Data Mining for retail and telecommunication industries :
*For collecting huge amount of data on sales, customer shopping history, goods transportation, consumption and service.
*Helps in identifying customer behavior, preferences, shopping patterns, improving quality of customer service, etc.
*Analysis of sales companies
*Design and construction of data warehouse.
*Multi-dimensional analysis
*Fraudient analysis.

C.) Data Mining in science and engineering :
*Data collection from geo-sciences, astronomy, space, terrains, meterology, etc.
*DW and pre-processing
*Mining complex data types
*graph and network based mining

D.) Intrusion Detection and preventions :
*Signature based detection
*Anomaly based detection

Applications of Data Warehouse :
A.) Information Processing
B.) Analytical Processing
C.) Data Mining, etc.

6.) Differentiate between OLAP and OLTP.
Ans :-
The differences between OLAP and OLTP are as follows :

7.) Explain the data mining techniques.
Ans :- 
Followings are some of the data mining techniques :
A.) Statistics :
Statistics collects, analyzes and presents large amount of data. Statistical models are used to model data and data classes. Statistics is used for mining patterns from data as well as  for understanding factors affecting patterns.

B.) Machine Learning :
machine learning studies how computers can learn from data . It also involves recognizing complex patterns and make intelligent decisions based on data.

C.) Database System and Data Warehouse :
Database and DW store large amount of real-time, fast-streaming, large data sets. Data mining can make use of database systems for high efficiency and scalability.Capability of DBMS can be extended and data warehouses support OLAP which is useful in data mining.

D.) Information Retrieval :
Large amount of information is present in web in the form of documents, multimedia, audio, text, etc. So, information retrieval, integrated with text mining and multimedia data  mining have become very much important technique.

E.) Neural Networks :
These are set of interconnected I/O units which learn. These can be used to extract patterns and detect trends which are difficult to find out for humans and computer techniques.

Some other data mining techniques are :
*Sequential Patterns
*Decision Trees

8.) Explain the apriori algorithm.
Ans :-

The Apriori Algorithm 

Given minimum required support s as interestingness criterion:
Search for all individual elements (1 element item set) that have a minimum support of s

2.1 From the result of the previous search for i-element item-sets, search for all i+1 element item-sets that have a minimum support of s

2.2 This becomes the sets of all frequent (i+1) element item-sets that are interesting

Until item-set size reaches maximum

You can find examples and further explanations in the notes :

9.) Explain the k-mediod algorithm.
Ans :-

10.) Mention the spatial database and it's features.
Ans :-

A spatial database is adatabase that is optimized to store and query data that represents objects defined in a geometric space. Most spatial databases allow representing simple geometric objects such as points, lines and polygons. Spatial data is often accessed, manipulated or analyzed through Geographic Information Systems. Spatial databases can perform a wide variety of spatial operations.

Some of the features of spatial databases are as follows :
  • Spatial Measurements: Computes line length, polygon area, the distance between geometries, etc.
  • Spatial Functions: Modify existing features to create new ones, for example by providing a buffer around them, intersecting features, etc.
  • Spatial Predicates: Allows true/false queries about spatial relationships between geometries. Examples include "do two polygons overlap" or 'is there a residence located within a mile of the area we are planning to build the landfill?' 
  • Geometry Constructors: Creates new geometries, usually by specifying the vertices (points or nodes) which define the shape.
  • Observer Functions: Queries which return specific information about a feature such as the location of the center of a circle

11.) What is data cube ? Explain with example.
Ans :- 
A data cube is a multi-dimensional data model that allows data to be modeled and represented in multiple dimensions.It is defined by dimensions and facts. In general terms, dimensions are the perspectives or entities with respect to which an organization wants to keep records.
It is especially useful when representing data together with dimensions as certain measures of business requirements. A cube's every dimension represents certain characteristic of the database, for example, daily, monthly or yearly sales. The data included inside a data cube makes it possible analyze almost all the figures for virtually any or all customers, sales agents, products, and much more. Thus, a data cube can help to establish trends and analyze performance.

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